Nephrite was studied obtained from the show of the Gorniy Altai and eastern Sajan (Muinokskoye and Ospinskoye) which corresponds by genesis to the apoultrabasite type of deposits, as well as Vitimskian nephrite (apocarbonaceous type). The colour varies from grey-green to green in apoultrabasite nephrites and from mat-white to bluish-grey transparent type in Vitim's variety. The data of spectral, roentgenoluminescent (RL) and thermoluminescent (TL) analyses were considered for all nephrite varieties. The increased content of Cr, V, Bi, Fe, Pb and an insignificant predominance of Ni and Co concentrations were detected in green nephrite as compared with its grey version. The spectral composition of the nephrite RL radiation is represented by the following RL bands: Mn2+ (570-630 nm), Cr3+ (690-700 nm), Fe3+ and more rarely – O– (450-500 nm). The nephrites from the apoultrabasite show were established to possess a very weak RL. Moreover, RL disappears totally in brightly green varieties. It is connected with the suppressing effect of Fe2+. On the contrary, nephrites from the shows of the apocarbonaceous type possess very intensive RL of Mn2+ and Cr3+. The presence of a broad range of chromophore components in the nephrite is conceivable. Those are Fe2+, Fe3+, Cr3+, probably V, Pb, Ni and Co. The colour, appearance of different tints, spotting and scintillation depend much from the scattering within the nephrite tangled-fibrous structure. The latter is possible either due to the presence of finely dispersed phases or to microcracks arising from the tectonic instability.